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PSY 101 - Introduction to Psychology - Textbook

Learning Outcomes

  • Understand what is meant by consciousness
  • Explain how circadian rhythms are involved in regulating the sleep-wake cycle, and how circadian cycles can be disrupted
  • Discuss the concept of sleep debt
  • Describe areas of the brain involved in sleep
  • Understand hormone secretions associated with sleep
  • Describe several theories aimed at explaining the function of sleep
  • Differentiate between REM and non-REM sleep
  • Describe the differences between the four stages of non-REM sleep
  • Understand the role that REM and non-REM sleep play in learning and memory
  • Describe the symptoms and treatments of insomnia
  • Recognize the symptoms of several parasomnias
  • Describe the symptoms and treatments for sleep apnea
  • Recognize risk factors associated with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and steps to prevent it
  • Describe the symptoms and treatments for narcolepsy
  • Describe the diagnostic criteria for substance use disorders
  • Identify the neurotransmitter systems affected by various categories of drugs
  • Describe how different categories of drugs effect behavior and experience
  • Define hypnosis and meditation
  • Understand the similarities and differences of hypnosis and meditation


Click on the links below to access the assigned reading.

     4.1 What Is Consciousness?
     4.2 Sleep and Why We Sleep
     4.3 Stages of Sleep
     4.4 Sleep Problems and Disorders
     4.5 Substance Use and Abuse
     4.6 Other States of Consciousness


States of Consciousness. Authored by: OpenStax CNX. Located at: License: CC BY-4.0. License Terms: Download for free at