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PSY 101 - Introduction to Psychology - Textbook

Learning Outcomes

  • Define personality
  • Describe early theories about personality development
  • Describe the assumptions of the psychodynamic perspective on personality development
  • Define and describe the nature and function of the id, ego, and superego
  • Define and describe the defense mechanisms
  • Define and describe the psychosexual stages of personality development
  • Discuss the concept of the inferiority complex
  • Discuss the core differences between Erikson’s and Freud’s views on personality
  • Discuss Jung’s ideas of the collective unconscious and archetypes
  • Discuss the work of Karen Horney, including her revision of Freud’s “penis envy”
  • Describe the behaviorist perspective on personality
  • Describe the cognitive perspective on personality
  • Describe the social cognitive perspective on personality
  • Discuss the contributions of Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers to personality development
  • Discuss the findings of the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart as they relate to personality and genetics
  • Discuss temperament and describe the three infant temperaments identified by Thomas and Chess
  • Discuss the evolutionary perspective on personality development
  • Discuss early trait theories of Cattell and Eysenck
  • Discuss the Big Five factors and describe someone who is high and low on each of the five traits
  • Discuss personality differences of people from collectivist and individualist cultures
  • Discuss the three approaches to studying personality in a cultural context
  • Discuss the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
  • Recognize and describe common projective tests used in personality assessment


Click on the links below to access the assigned reading.

     11.1 What Is Personality?
     11.2 Freud and the Psychodynamic Perspective
     11.3 Neo-Freudians: Adler, Erikson, Jung, and Horney
     11.4 Learning Approaches
     11.5 Humanistic Approaches
     11.6 Biological Approaches
     11.7 Trait Theorists
     11.8 Cultural Understandings of Personality
     11.9 Personality Assessment


Personality. Authored by: OpenStax CNX. Located at: License: CC BY-4.0. License Terms: Download for free at