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EDU 111 - Teaching Math & Science to Young Children - Textbook

Chapter 5: Standards & Assessment

5.1: The Project Approach

5.1: The Project Approach

Copyright © Sylvia C. Chard. All rights reserved.


"The study guide offers educators an overview of the Project Approach and guides them through the process of developing and implementing a project in the classroom. Readings provide both practical knowledge and a theoretical framework, while assignments offer a flexible, step-by-step approach that allows teachers to learn in the process of trying out their first (or second or third) project in the classroom.

The Guide is an adaptation of the online course as taught by Project Approach founder, Sylvia Chard. It is still a little like a course but designed for a teacher to study for him or herself.

Journal prompts with each of the seven sections offer opportunities for teachers to reflect on and refine their strategies, ideas, and practices. Establishing a regular journal writing routine is a fundamental part of project-based teaching as this is a process that evolves with reflection and experience."
 

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5.2: Assessment Benefits

Beyond Outcomes: How Ongoing Assessment Supports Children's Learning and Leads to Meaningful Curriculum

Copyright © 2004 by the National Association for the Education of Young Children. All rights reserved.


"The authors describe an assessment plan that is a meaningful part of an early childhood program. Using a natural process of observing, teachers can use curriculum objectives and developmental continuums to guide them."


Retrieve the article to continue reading:

Hostos Students: Use the link below and login using your Hostos Library credentials. Note: this will only work if you have visited the library to register your ID during the current semester.

Others: Most likely you can retrieve this article from your college or university library: Dodge, D., Heroman, C., Charles, J., & Maiorca, J. (2004). Beyond Outcomes: How Ongoing Assessment Supports Children's Learning and Leads to Meaningful Curriculum. YC Young Children, 59(1), 20-28.

5.3: Assessment Principles for Early Childhood Mathematics

Assessment Principles for Early Childhood Mathematics

Copyright © 2005 by J. V. Copley. All rights reserved.


"How does a teacher assess what young children know about mathematics? How can a child's reasoning and problem-solving skills be assessed? And how can busy teachers do the myriad tasks necessary in working with young children, including organizing an inviting learning environment, planning and carrying out the curriculum, interacting with children to enhance their learning -- and still find time to assess the mathematical understanding of each child?" 


Retrieve the article to continue reading:

Hostos Students: Use the link below and login using your Hostos Library credentials. Note: this will only work if you have visited the library to register your ID during the current semester.

Others: Most likely you can retrieve this article from your college or university library: Copley, J. V. (2005). Assessment Principles for Early Childhood Mathematics. Early Childhood Today, 19(4), 14.

5.4: Formative & Summative Assessment

Formative & Summative Assessment


Video 1: Assessment & Grading in the Differentiated Classroom, with Rick Wormeli

© 2018 by Rick Wormeli.

"You have to begin to weigh formative versus summative assessment."

Rick Wormeli, author of Fair Isn't Always Equal and Differentiation, explains the difference between the two and how formative assessment helps you offer better feedback to your students.

 

Follow the link to watch this video:


Video 2: Using Common Formative Assessments to Help Teachers Reflect on Their Practice
"Using Common Formative Assessments to Help Teachers Reflect on Their Practice" by Solution Tree is licensed under CC BY 4.0

 


Video 3: Formative Assessment and Effective Feedback to Improve Student Outcomes

"Formative Assessment and Effective Feedback to Improve Student Outcomes" by vivekasimpson is licensed under CC BY 4.0.

5.5: Content Standards: Connecting Standards-Based Curriculum to Instructional Planning

5.5: Content Standards: Connecting Standards-Based Curriculum to Instructional Planning


5.5.1 Standards

"Standards" in Content Standards: Connecting Standards-Based Curriculum to Instructional Planning by The IRIS Center Peabody College Vanderbilt University is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.


There are two types of standards: content and performance (achievement). Content standards create a clear outline of the essential knowledge, skills, and understanding that students need to master in a given content area. Content standards refer to what gets taught in specific content areas (e.g., reading, language arts, mathematics, science, history). They define the breadth and depth of knowledge, skills, and processes that are to be taught within a given domain. Because states and school districts are striving to increase student performance, educational professionals and other stakeholders in the community include challenging and rigorous content in the development of standards.


All states have developed content standards in at least the areas of reading/ language arts, math, and science. Most states have developed content standards in other areas as well, including art, health, technology, and career education. However, only the academic areas are assessed using large-scale tests.


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5.5.2: Standards-Based Curriculum

"Standards-based Curriculum" in Content Standards: Connecting Standards-Based Curriculum to Instructional Planning by The IRIS Center Peabody College Vanderbilt University is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

 

The standards-based curriculum or the intended curriculum is the official or adopted curriculum contained in state or district policy. A body of content knowledge that students are expected to learn based on their participation within the school experience, standards-based curriculum includes broad descriptions of content areas and often specifies performance standards that students are expected to meet. State and district assessments are linked directly to the content and performance standards contained in the standards-based curriculum. The standards-based curriculum outlines graduation requirements, which are taken from state department of education guidelines that specify the subjects and skills that should be taught at each grade level.

Standards-based curriculum helps teachers to link the taught curriculum to the required standards. It is the connection between the content standards and the taught and learned curriculum.
 

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5.5.3: Curriculum

"Curriculum" in Content Standards: Connecting Standards-Based Curriculum to Instructional Planning by The IRIS Center Peabody College Vanderbilt University is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

 

Curriculum can be defined as a school’s plan of instruction: how, when, and what students will be taught, what content will be covered, and what students ought to have learned after they’ve completed a specific course or grade. For her part, Ms. Begay needs to examine her school’s curriculum (e.g., textbooks, science kits, lessons) in all subject areas and compare it to the adopted standards. She does this in order to be certain that she understands the content that students are required to learn.

 

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5.5.4: Benchmarks

"Benchmarks" in Content Standards: Connecting Standards-Based Curriculum to Instructional Planning by The IRIS Center Peabody College Vanderbilt University is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

 

Remember that content standards include instructional goals that are anchored two to three years in the future. Described as the “subcomponents” of content standards, benchmarks identify the expected understandings and skills needed for content standards by grade level and are tracked according to predetermined time intervals. For example, a fourth-grade benchmark within the mathematics content standard of “Number Sense” might be that students will be able to multiply and divide whole numbers from 0 to 200. A benchmark that might be even more defined is one that specifies what the student will do within “Number Sense” by the end of the first marking period or at the end of a unit on measurement.

 

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5.5.5: Putting it All Together

"Putting it All Together" in Content Standards: Connecting Standards-Based Curriculum to Instructional Planning by The IRIS Center Peabody College Vanderbilt University is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.


Content standards and benchmarks comprise a multitude of skills and identify the things that students should be able to do. Remember, depending on your state, content standards and benchmarks may remain the same across the grades, but performance standards build upon previous years, thereby changing with each grade. Study the table [on the linked page] to see how a connection is made between content standards, benchmarks, and performance standards.

 

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5.5.6: Monitoring Student Progress

"Monitoring Student Progress" in Content Standards: Connecting Standards-Based Curriculum to Instructional Planning by The IRIS Center Peabody College Vanderbilt University is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.


Linking curriculum standards to instruction and assessment is critical to the achievement of effective learning. As you determine how to develop and use assessments, you should ask yourself three important questions:

  • What learning goals and outcomes am I trying to measure?
  • What kind of evidence am I looking for that will demonstrate whether my students have achieved the goals I am measuring?
  • What type or format of assessment will present that evidence

 

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