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EDU 111 - Teaching Math & Science to Young Children - Textbook

Chapter 3: Theory & Teacher Effectiveness

3.1: Teacher Effectiveness & Why it Matters

3.1: Teaching Effectiveness & Why it Matters

"Teaching Effectiveness and Why it Matters" by Robert A. Barry, Ph.D. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

"To improve student learning, you do not change the structure. You change the instructional practices of teachers. The schools that seem to do best are those that have a clear idea of what kind of instructional practice they wish to produce, and then design a structure to go with it.” —Richard Elmore, Harvard University


"It’s not rocket science—the better the teacher teaches, the better the student learns.” —Harry K. Wong, Author, The First Days of School; How to Be an Effective Teacher


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3.2: The Vygotsky Method

3.3: Child Science Skill Improvement through Hands-On Learning Activities in Kindergarten with Limited Human Resources and Facilities

3.3: Child Science Skill Improvement through Hands-On Learning Activities in Kindergarten with Limited Human Resources and Facilities

"Child Science Skill Improvement through Hands-On Learning Activities in Kindergarten with Limited Human Resources and Facilities" in American Journal of Educational Resources by Rukiyah, Marlina and Mohammad Kanedi is licensed under CC BY 4.0.

The early childhood education (ECE) curriculum in Indonesia, either explicitly or implicitly, includes science skills as one of the basic competencies that children must achieve. However, under the pretext of lack availability of facilities, majority of educators have not carry out science learning appropriately. This study aimed to demonstrate and convince early childhood education practitioners that an interesting and effective learning to develop science process skills of children can be implemented even in a kindergarten with limited facilities. By using one-shot case study design, 17children of Group B (aged 5-6 years) at Srijaya Kindergarten of Palembang were exposed to hands-on activities including exploring materials that float or sink, dissolved or unsoluble, color mixing; making letters using play dough; and observing insects with magnifying glass. The child science skills were observed and assessed using observational forms and child worksheets. The results showed 9 (52.95%) subjects obtained scores range 80-100; 4 (23.5%) achieved score range of 66-79, 3 (17.6%) reached score range of 56-65, and 1 (5.9%) obtained score of 52. Thus, it can be concluded that science learning with a process skill approach proved to be effective for developing children's science skills, even in kindergartens with limited facilities such as in Srijaya Kindergarten of Palembang.


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3.4: How Early Should We Be Teaching STEM?

3.4: How Early Should We Be Teaching STEM?

"How Early Should We Be Teaching STEM?" by Remake Learning is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.

Sesame Street thinks students should understand the word “hypothesis” at age 4. Do experts agree?

For many parents and teachers, tackling topics like engineering and science with children can seem daunting. Questions like, 'Why is the sky blue?' can leave adults feeling like they don’t have the answers. However, many experts believe that this kind of 'science talk' is just what children need in their early years, before the fear of being wrong materializes in formal and more competitive learning environments.

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3.5: Observing, Questioning, Measuring, & Presenting

3.5: Observing, Questioning, Measuring, & Presenting

"Observing, questioning, measuring, presenting" in Science: An Elementary Teacher’s Guide by Wikibooks contributors for Wikibooks, The Free Textbook Project is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

What are the Process Skills?

Process skills are simply techniques that scientists use--the skills to carry out the scientific process. When we teach science we tend to focus on the science content but we can also teach these process skills in a variety of fun ways, which will help students improve their scientific thinking, carry out their own science projects, and improve their attitude towards science.


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