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EDU 101 - Buzzwords Assignment: Library Research Help

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This work by Linda Miles, and based on a syllabus by Denise Cummings-Clay is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Click on the links below to access these systems.

Gale Virtual Reference Library (GVRL)

A database of encyclopedia articles and dictionary definitions.

Opposing Viewpoints in Context

A database of essays and other materials related to controversial topics.


A a tool that searches many databases at once, plus the books in the library.

Education Source

A database of journal articles and more related to education.

Best Bet Education Databases

Education-Related Encyclopedias

Great places to search for overview articles that cover the background and all the major points of a topic.

Education-Related News

Other Good Places to Search

Are you being asked to login to access these materials?

To access the online articles and e-books from the library databases, use your CUNYfirst username (firstname.lastname##) and password.

  • NOTE: if you are in a special program that does not have a CUNY login, please contact for instructions.

Paraphrasing Examples

Most of your academic writing will be a paraphrase of what you have been reading. This means using your own words to express the ideas of others, without changing their meaning or intent.

Effective paraphrasing starts with effective reading and note-making, which you have done in your critical reading assignments.

Simple Three-Step Process on how to paraphrase.

  1. Original text:
    • “Employers must ensure staff have healthy options through the day” (Smith, 2009, p. 12).
  2. Your own words:
    • Bosses must make sure staff eat good food all the time.
  3. More formal, academic language:
    • Management has a responsibility to their employees’ health, which can include supplying healthy food choices (Smith, 2009).

In-text citations – indicate when you’ve used a source

  • Three key pieces of info:   Author’s last name & year of publication. Plus, if it’s a quotation, the page number.
  • Two ways to do it:
    • Include name and year in a “signal phrase”:   According to Smith (2010), many social workers run the risk of becoming emotionally attached to their clients.
    • Name and year in parentheses:   Many social workers “potentially face the problem of becoming attached emotionally to clients” (Smith, 2010, p. 101).
  • If there’s more than one author listed:
    • For one author: (Smith, 2010, p. 101)
    • For two authors: (Smith & Parker, 2012, p. 57)
    • For three or more authors: (Smith et al., 2019, p. 2) – et al is a Latin abbreviation meaning “and others.”
  • Examples of in-text citations using APA Style
    • According to Maldonado (2015) stated that education polices….
    • In 2015, Maldonado wrote that education polices…
    • Education policies… (Maldonado, 2015).
  • Note that quotations require you to include the page number, but when you paraphrase, you leave that off.

Your References List

  • At the end of your paper, you will include a final page with the word References centered at the top of the page.
  • Below that you will include a list of your sources (a list of references) formatted according the APA style.
  • How each reference is laid out and what goes into it depends on what kind of a source it is:
    • A book with 1 author:

LastName, F. M. (Year of publication). Title of work in italics: Not all capitals. Publisher.

Harris, A. B. (1994). Broadway theatre: Making it big. Routledge.

  • A book with 2 or more authors:

LastName, F. M., & Author, F. M. (Year of publication). Title of work in italics: Not all capitals. Publisher.

Locker, K., & Kaczmarek, S. (2010). Business communication: Building critical skills. McGraw-Hill.

  • A scholarly journal article (see info below about DOIs and URLs):

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Date of publication). Title of article: Not all capitals. Title of Journal in Italics, volume number in italics(issue number), page-range.

Berliner, T. (2010). Women in American Musical Theatre. Theatre History Studies, 30(3), 237-239.

Reddy, S. K., Swaminathan, V., & Motley, C. M. (1998). Exploring the determinants of Broadway show success. Journal of Marketing Research (JMR), 35(3), 370-383. 3152034

  • An online magazine or newspaper article:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article: Not all capitals. Title of Newspaper in Italics. http://

Whitehouse, K. (2016, Mar 28). Pedigreed Wall Streeter accused of fraud. USA Today.

  • A single part of a book (like a chapter) from a book that has different parts by different authors:

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of chapter: Not all capitals. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book in italics: Not all capitals (pp. pages of chapter). Publisher.

Le Gallienne, E. (2009). On repertory and audiences. In American Theatre Magazine Staff (Eds.), American Theatre reader: Essays and conversations from American Theatre Magazine (pp. 29-31). Theatre Communications Group.

  • A page of a website:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day of publication). Title of document: Not all capitals. http://Web address

Simonson, R. (2011, Apr 4). When did Broadway shows start offering Sunday performances? Playbill.

  • If a source has more than one author, list them all.
  • If a source is electronic (online) rather than physical, include just one of the following (you can see these in some of the examples above):
    • DOI (short for Digital Object Identifier). It will look something like this: If you see something like this instead: 10.1037/a0028240 just add to the beginning of it.
    • URL (short for Uniform Resource Locator). This is the web address of the source.
    • If your source has both a DOI and a URL, use the DOI and leave off the URL.
  • Notice that if a reference is longer than two lines, you need to indent the second line.


More examples can be found at:

Be sure to check your syllabus to find our which of these assignments your professor is using.

Turning Point Exercise:  Seven-Sentence Paragraph

(Repeat this form for each article.  Use the forms to form your opinion and write your thesis statement).

Critical thinking is defined by as “disciplined thinking that is clear, rational, open-minded, and informed by evidence”.  For each of your four articles, read the article thoroughly.  Try to locate sentences that showcase the author’s critical thinking.  Underline them.

Using only information from the article, complete these seven prompts:

  1. To develop his/her assertion that ______________________________, the author states ______________________________.

For the first blank, fill in the point of view of the author.  For the second blank, give the author’s reasoning or evidence.

  1. Based on what the author said above, my question is:  to what extent does the author make a fair assumption that ______________________________?

For this question, give an example that shows the author’s fair assumption.

  1. If the question is ______________________________, on the other hand one piece of evidence points to ______________________________.

For the first blank, state a question that you have about the author’s opinion that might challenge the author’s perspective.  For the second blank, give an alternate opinion that could come from the evidence that might contradict or challenge that perspective.

  1. On the other hand, a different piece of evidence points to _____________________________.  

State a third possible assumption.  This could come from another article.

  1. Between these different perspectives, _____________________seems to lead us more toward a conclusion because _________________________.

For the first blank, state the perspective that you feel is best supported by the evidence in the article. For the second blank, give the reason why the other perspective is not the best one.  Use evidence from the article.

  1. Although I tend to think the evidence supports ______________________________, to be fair, I am not sure about ______________________________.

For the first blank, state the strongest piece of evidence that is forming your own opinion.  For the second blank, state a concern that you have from the evidence.

  1. Therefore, if the question is whether or not the author is fair to assume ______________________________, the evidence seems to suggest that ______________________________.

Use these blanks to give your concluding opinion based on just this one article.


Be sure to check your syllabus to find out which of these assignments your professor is using.

Critical Reading

For each article,

  1. Read the article through from start to finish.

  2. Look back through the article. Determine the author’s MAIN point. Complete this sentence, filling in the missing pieces:

    • To develop [his/her] assertion that [the author’s main point], [the author’s name] states [the reasoning/evidence the author uses].

    • NOTE: you may or may not agree with the author. This sentence is about his/her main point, not what you think about it.

  3. Search carefully for the things listed below, and mark up the document (using underlining, highlighting, and/or notes in the margins) wherever you see the following:

    • The author establishes a question, concern, or conflict that he/she is examining.

    • The author evaluates evidence, especially where he/she weighs one piece of evidence against another.

    • The author deals with complexity by stating what is unknown, uncertain, or is being debated by experts.

    • The author draws conclusions based on evaluation of evidence and complexity of the issue.

  4. Make a copy of the article with all your notes on it.

  5. For each article, submit the sentence you completed for #2, and a copy of the article with the notes you made in #3. Keep the original copy of the article with all your notes on it.