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BIO 140 Human Biology I - Questions and Solutions

The Small and Large Intestines - Solutions

Review Questions

1. In which part of the alimentary canal does most digestion occur?

  1. stomach
  2. proximal small intestine
  3. distal small intestine
  4. ascending colon

2. Which of these is most associated with villi?

  1. haustra
  2. lacteals
  3. bacterial flora
  4. intestinal glands

3. What is the role of the small intestine’s MALT?

  1. secreting mucus
  2. buffering acidic chyme
  3. activating pepsin
  4. preventing bacteria from entering the bloodstream

4. Which part of the large intestine attaches to the appendix?

  1. cecum
  2. ascending colon
  3. transverse colon
  4. descending colon

 

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Critical Thinking Questions

1. Explain how nutrients absorbed in the small intestine pass into the general circulation.

Solution: Nutrients from the breakdown of carbohydrates and proteins are absorbed through a capillary bed in the villi of the small intestine. Lipid breakdown products are absorbed into a lacteal in the villi, and transported via the lymphatic system to the bloodstream.

2. Why is it important that chyme from the stomach is delivered to the small intestine slowly and in small amounts?

Solution: If large quantities of chyme were forced into the small intestine, it would result in osmotic water loss from the blood into the intestinal lumen that could cause potentially life-threatening low blood volume and erosion of the duodenum.

3. Describe three of the differences between the walls of the large and small intestines.

Solution: The mucosa of the small intestine includes circular folds, villi, and microvilli. The wall of the large intestine has a thick mucosal layer, and deeper and more abundant mucus-secreting glands that facilitate the smooth passage of feces. There are three features that are unique to the large intestine: teniae coli, haustra, and epiploic appendages.

 

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OpenStax, The Small and Large Intestines. OpenStax CNX. Feb 6, 2017 http://cnx.org/contents/430d8e5a-f699-4949-9849-5b4ca1125fa2@5. © Feb 6, 2017 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 license.