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BIO 140 Human Biology I - Questions and Solutions

The Stomach - Solutions

Review Questions

1. Which of these cells secrete hormones?

  1. parietal cells
  2. mucous neck cells
  3. enteroendocrine cells
  4. chief cells

2. Where does the majority of chemical digestion in the stomach occur?

  1. fundus and body
  2. cardia and fundus
  3. body and pylorus
  4. body

3. During gastric emptying, chyme is released into the duodenum through the ________.

  1. esophageal hiatus
  2. pyloric antrum
  3. pyloric canal
  4. pyloric sphincter

4. Parietal cells secrete ________.

  1. gastrin
  2. hydrochloric acid
  3. pepsin
  4. pepsinogen


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Critical Thinking Questions

1. Explain how the stomach is protected from self-digestion and why this is necessary.

Solution: The mucosal barrier protects the stomach from self-digestion. It includes a thick coating of bicarbonate-rich mucus; the mucus is physically protective, and bicarbonate neutralizes gastric acid. Epithelial cells meet at tight junctions, which block gastric juice from penetrating the underlying tissue layers, and stem cells quickly replace sloughed off epithelial mucosal cells.

2. Describe unique anatomical features that enable the stomach to perform digestive functions.

Solution: The stomach has an additional inner oblique smooth muscle layer that helps the muscularis churn and mix food. The epithelium includes gastric glands that secrete gastric fluid. The gastric fluid consists mainly of mucous, HCl, and the enzyme pepsin released as pepsinogen.


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OpenStax, The Stomach. OpenStax CNX. Jun 4, 2013 http://cnx.org/contents/3bd76f0b-1510-44f7-bf4f-54b7a7fa7452@3. © Jun 4, 2013 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 license.