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These chapters cover health and lifespan development during (1) Infancy and Toddlerhood; (2) Early Childhood; (3) Middle and Late Childhood; (4) Adolescence; (5) Emerging and Early Adulthood; (6) Middle Adulthood; and (7) Late Adulthood.
Reducing Disparities in Severe Maternal Morbidity and Mortality
Significant racial and ethnic disparities in maternal morbidity and mortality exist in the United States. Black women are three to four times more likely to die a pregnancy-related death as compared with white women. Growing research indicates that quality of healthcare, from preconception through postpartum care, may be a critical lever for improving outcomes for racial and ethnic minority women. This article reviews racial and ethnic disparities in severe maternal morbidities and mortality, underlying drivers of these disparities, and potential levers to reduce their occurrence.
Black Mothers Keep Dying After Giving Birth. Shalon Irving's Story Explains Why
"In recent years, as high rates of maternal mortality in the U.S. have alarmed researchers, one statistic has been especially concerning. According to the CDC, black mothers in the U.S. die at three to four times the rate of white mothers, one of the widest of all racial disparities in women's health. Put another way, a black woman is 22 percent more likely to die from heart disease than a white woman, 71 percent more likely to perish from cervical cancer, but 243 percent more likely to die from pregnancy- or childbirth-related causes. In a national study of five medical complications that are common causes of maternal death and injury, black women were two to three times more likely to die than white women who had the same condition...What's more, even relatively well-off black women like Shalon Irving die and nearly die at higher rates than whites. Again, New York City offers a startling example: A 2016 analysis of five years of data found that black, college-educated mothers who gave birth in local hospitals were more likely to suffer severe complications of pregnancy or childbirth than white women who never graduated from high school."