You can exclude results by putting a minus sign in front of words you don't want included in your search. This is especially useful when:
Example: say you want to find out about city councils generally, and don't want your results limited to the NYC city council, (which Google will do if you are searching in NYC). Compare your results from these two searches:
Google now automatically searches not only for your keywords, but also any other words that it thinks are reasonable synonyms or related terms.
Sometimes, however, you may want to search just for your exact words - especially if you see an important difference in meaning between your word and a synonym that Google has inserted into your results.
(1) Click on "tools"
(2) You will now have two new options under the box. Click on "all results" and then select "verbatim".
Google does not automatically put newest results first. Some reasons you may want to limit dates:
(1) After you've entered your keywords and gotten your results, click on "tools"
(2) You will now see new options underneath the box - click on the words "any time" to see your choices; most are self-explanatory.
(3) If you want to specify a specific range of dates, click on "custom range":
Note: Possible uses for a custom range of dates could include:
Sample exercise: do this search for Charlottesville and try the three different date ranges in the pictures below. Compare your results.
How can you use date ranges in your research?
Here is one example. Let's say you wanted to dig deeper behind the July 2017 violence in Charlottesville. One piece of information you might want is what was being reported in the news about White supremacist groups near Charlottesville a couple years ago.
Do the third search (2015) again, and this time add the word KKK to your terms. Look at your results. If you didn't have the date filter on for this search, it would take a long time to get to any webpages that were written before the violence occurred this summer, because it was such big news.
Many websites, even good ones, have less-than-excellent ways to search within their webpages.
Google tends to do a better job searching within websites.
(1) To search within a particular website, type site:www.URLofwebsite.com and then your keywords.
An example you can try:
(1) Use Google search-within-site to look for anything published in the New York Times that contains the keyword DACA.
(2) Go to the New York Times website and do a search for DACA using their own search engine.
(3) Compare the results.